By deletion of al-, those word-forms gave rise to the Latin word-forms chimia, chimicus and chimista beginning in the mid 16th century.
The word-forms with and without the al- were synonymous until the end of the 17th century; the meaning of each of them covered both alchemy and chemistry.
"Alcohol of wine" (ethanol) has its first known record in Paracelsus.الانبيق al-anbīq, "the still" (for distilling).
The Arabic root is traceable to Greek ambix = "cup".
The medieval Latins borrowed the method and the names.الخوارزمي al-khwārizmī, a short name for the mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (died c. The word has no record in medieval Arabic mathematics except as a person's proper name.
A few surviving 12th-century Latin introductory tutorials for working with the Hindu-Arabic numbers have algorizmi or alchorismi in the headline of the text with indications in the body of the text that it represents Al-Khwarizmi's name. In Latin and English from the 13th through 19th centuries both algorism and algorithm meant only the elementary methods of the Hindu-Arabic number system.العضادة al-ʿiḍāda (from ʿiḍad, pivoting arm), the rotary dial for angular positioning on the Astrolabe surveying instrument used in astronomy. The Arabs used it as an ingredient in making glass and making soap.
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This algebra book was translated to Latin twice in the 12th century.
In medieval Arabic mathematics, al-jabr and al-muqābala were the names of the two main preparatory steps used to solve an algebraic equation and the phrase "al-jabr and al-muqābala" came to mean "method of equation-solving".
The two meanings – ambergris and amber – then co-existed for more than four centuries.
"Ambergris" was coined to eliminate the ambiguity (the color of ambergris is grey more often than not, and gris is French for grey).
To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic.